Microbial Diseases of the Nervous System

Microbial Diseases of the Nervous System

Monday, May 21, 2012

Bacterial Diseases of the Nervous System

Bacterial Diseases of the Nervous System

1. Bacterial Meningitis
Causative Agent - Streptococcus pneumoniae

Meningitis in the hands

Meningitis at the back

Meningitis in the lower extremities that got worst

Meningitis in the upper extremities

2. Haemophilus influenzae Meningitis
Causative Agent: Haemophilus Meningitis

This is an inferior view of a brain infected with Gram-negative Haemophilus influenzae bacteria
H. influenzae Meningitis in a 4-month old child

3. Neisseria Meningitis (Meningococcal Meningitis)
Causative Agent: Neisseria meningitidis
Skin rash caused by meningococcal septicemia 

Bleeding into the skin (petechiae and purpura) usually occurs and the tissue may die (become necrotic or gangrenous)

4. Listeriosis

Causative Agent: Listeria monocytogenes

Listeriosis can also lead to meningitis and encephalitis

The consequences for the baby may cause stillbirth, miscarriages or experienced a life-threatening infection within the first few days after birth.

5. Tetanus
Causative Agent: Clostridium tetani

Patient suffering from tetanus

Child has painful muscle spasms from Tetanus. It is nearly impossible for her to move or control the muscles in her body.
Tetanus (lockjaw); 

Neonatal tetanus with severe muscle contractions

6. Botulism
Causative Agent: Clostridium botulinum

Note the bilateral total opthalmolplegia with ptosis in the left image and the dilated, fixed pupils in the right image. This child was fully conscious.
A 14-year old with botulism.

Hypotonia caused by botulism

Wound botulism

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7. Leprosy
Causative Agent: Mycobacterium leprae

A 24-year old man wit leprosy

                         Active, Neglected Nodulous Lepromatous Leprosy Lesions on Face

Sensory loss in leprosy occurs in nerves around the tuberculoid lesion                                                                            

Viral Disease of the Nervous System

1. Poliomyelitis

Causative Agent: Poliovirus

A man with an atrophied right leg due to poliomyelitis

Poliomyelitis is a viral disease that can affect nerves and can lead to partial or full paralysis

The children's leg are damaged by paralytic poliomyelitis

2. Rabies
Causative Agent: Rabies virus

Rabies can cause brain inflammation

Patient that is suffering from rabies

Hydrophobia in a suspected rabies patient

3. Arboviral Encephalitis
Causative Agent:Arbovirus 

Arboviral encephalitis. At least 18 arbo-viruses cause encephalitis.

Arboviral Encephalitis

Fungal Disease of the Nervous System

1. Cryptococcus neoformans Meningitis (Cryptococcosis)
Causative Agent: Cryptococcus neoformans

patient with Cryptococcus neoformans var.neoformans meningitis

Cryptococcal Meningitis

Patient with Cryptococcus neoformans Meningitis

Protozoan Disease of the Nervous System

1. African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness)
Causative Agent: Trypanosoma brucei

A patient with advanced African Trypanosomiasis which invades the central nervous system

African Trypanosomiasis

Human African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness)

2. Amebic Meningoencephalitis 
Causative Agent: Naegleria fowleri

Amebic maningoencephalitis

Amebic meningoencephalitis

Amebic meningoencephalitis

Disease Caused by Unidentified Agent

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome